BOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LAW

BOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LAW

765COMMONWEALTH AVENUE

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 02215

Telephone: (617) 353-3112

Fax: (617) 353-7400

URL: http://www.bu.edu/LAW


 

ABA Approved Since 1925


 

Boston University School of Law provides a strong curriculum and a rich array of opportunities for students interested in law. Located on the main campus of Boston University along the CharlesRiver, the School is accredited by the American Bar Association and is a charter member of the Association of American Law Schools.

 

Over sixty full‑time faculty members provide the large majority of classroom teaching. In addition, more than fifty part‑time faculty provide specialized instruction, and eighteen teaching fellows offer instruction in the First Year Writing Program. The faculty carries on a long‑standing tradition at the Schoolof Law of excellence in classroom instruction, while building an international reputation for research and writing that addresses the most difficult legal issues faced by our society.

 

The Schoolof Law annually considers over 6,000 applications for the approximately 275 places in the entering J.D. class. The School also offers programs for LL.M. degrees in Taxation (established in 1959), Banking and Financial Law (1984), American Law for Foreign Lawyers (1995), and Intellectual Property Law (2003). Students come from a wide range of backgrounds and schools, and with experiences and perspectives that continually enrich the School. From its founding in 1872, the School of Law has had a policy of opening its doors to women and minorities.

 

The curriculum consists of an extraordinarily diverse selection of courses, seminars and clinical programs. After the first year, students have free choice of courses from among an extensive selection of electives, except for a required course in Professional Responsibility and fulfillment of an upper‑class writing requirement. The School's objective is to equip the student with sufficient knowledge and understanding of law and legal systems to enable use of this knowledge in any form of legal practice or in any other service or career. The School has developed concentrations in the curriculum for those students wishing to specialize in particular areas of the law, including Business Organizations and Finance Law, Health Law, Intellectual Property Law, International Law and Litigation and Dispute Resolution.

 

The School of Law offers eight dual‑degree programs with other graduate divisions of Boston University, including a J.D./M.B.A. and a J.D./M.B.A with Concentration in Health Care Management (with the Graduate School of Management), a J.D./M.S. in Mass Communication (with the College of Communication), a J.D./M.P.H. (with the School of Public Health), a J.D./M.A. in Preservation Studies, a J.D./M.A. in International Relations, a J.D./M.A. in Philosophy and the Law (with the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences) and a J.D./M.S.W. (with the School of Social Work). Within the Schoolof Law, students can obtain a J.D. with an LL.M. in Taxation or a J.D. with an LL.M. in Banking and Financial Law on an accelerated basis.

 

The Schoolof Law is a national leader in developing semester‑abroad programs. It offers students the opportunity to study abroad at one of eleven locations: BuenosAires, Argentina; Lyon, France; Paris, France; Hamburg, Germany; Oxford, England; Leiden, The Netherlands; Tel Aviv, Israel; Florence, Italy; HongKong, China; and Beijing, China.

 

Students at the School publish six law journals. Students also participate in a broad range of organizations dedicated to community service and to social activities. A majority of students participates in extracurricular moot court, negotiation or client counseling competitions.

 

The School sponsors three research centers and institutes: The Morin Center for Banking and Financial Law, The Center for Law and Technology, and The Institute of Jewish Law. The American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, an independent professional association, is housed at the School of Law.

 

The Schoolof Law library contains more than 600,000 volumes, more than 5,500 serial subscriptions, and extensive facilities for computer research.

 

The Career Development Office provides a wide variety of programs and employer contacts to assist students in planning their careers and securing challenging positions. Graduates of the School of Law work in a broad range of legal and non‑legal jobs throughout the country and the world. More than 20,000 living alumni have achieved great distinction in the private practice of law on the bench, in politics and other public service, in academia, and in business.ÂMany alumni continue to support the school by acting as advisors and mentors to current students and recent graduates.

 


Dean:

Maureen A. O'Rourke (617) 353‑3112

Interim Director of Admissions/Financial Aid:

Alissa Leonard (617) 353‑3100

Library Director:

Marlene Alderman (617) 353‑2309

Career Development Director:

Maura Kelly (617) 353‑3141


FULL TIME FACULTY

 

MAUREEN ANNE O'ROURKE, (Dean and Professor), born 1963; admitted to bar, 1991, New York. Education: Marist College (B.S., 1985); YaleLaw School (J.D., 1990). COURSES: Commercial Law, Intellectual Property, Sales & Secured Transactions.


SUSAN MUSARRAT AKRAM, (Clinical Professor), born 1956; admitted to bar, 1983, California; 1989, Massachusetts. Education: University of Michigan (B.A., 1979); Georgetown UniversityLaw Center (J.D., 1982); Institute International des Droits de L'Homme (Diplomate, 1996). COURSES: Clinical Teaching, Comparative Refugee/Asylum Law, Immigration/Asylum Law, Trial Advocacy.

 

GEORGE J. ANNAS, (Professor), born 1945; admitted to bar, 1970 Massachusetts and Minnesota. Education: Harvard University (A.B., 1967; M.P.H., 1972); Harvard Law School (J.D., 1970). COURSES: Bioethics, Health and Human Rights, Law and Literature.

 

MICHAEL BARAM, (Professor & Director, Law & Tech. Center), born 1935; admitted to bar, 1962, Massachusetts. Education: Tufts University (B.S., 1957); Columbia University School of Law (LL.B., 1960). COURSES: Administrative Law; Advanced Environmental Law, Corporate Risk Management, Environmental Law, Law & Science, Products Liability.

 

HUGH W. BAXTER, (Professor), born 1958. Education: Stanford University (A.B., 1980); Yale University (Ph.D., 1985); Stanford LawSchool (J.D., 1990). COURSES: Federal Courts (Supreme Court), Jurisprudence, Torts.

 

JACK MICHAEL BEERMANN, (Harry Elwood Warren Scholar and Professor), born 1958; admitted to bar, 1983, Illinois; 1985, Massachusetts. Education: University of Wisconsin (B.A., 1980); University of ChicagoLaw School (J.D., 1983). COURSES: Administrative Law, Allocation of Government Power, Civil Rights, Federal Jurisdiction, Supreme Court Decision‑making.

 

DANIEL M. BERMAN, (Director, Graduate Tax Program and Professor of the Practice of Tax Law), born District of Columbia, October 2, 1957; admitted to bar, 1983, District of Columbia. Education: Harvard College (A.B., 1979); HarvardLaw School (J.D., 1983). COURSES: Tax Law. Email: bermand@bu.edu

 

ROBERT G. BONE, (Professor & Harry Elwood Warren Scholar), born 1951; admitted to bar, 1978, Massachusetts. Education: Stanford University (B.A., 1973); HarvardLaw School (J.D., 1978). COURSES: Civil Procedure, Complex Litigation, Game Theory & Litigation, Intellectual Property, Jurisprudence.

 

JOSEPH F. BRODLEY, (Hon. Frank R. Kenison Scholar‑in‑Law & Prof., Law & Econ), born 1926; admitted to bar, 1953, California; 1956, New York. Education: University of California, Los Angeles, (B.A., 1949); Yale Law School (LL.B., 1952); HarvardLaw School (LL.M., 1953). COURSES: Antitrust, Corporate Finance, Law & Technology, Regulated Industries.

 

CONSTANCE A. BROWNE, (Clinical Associate Professor), born 1949; admitted to bar, 1981, Massachusetts; 1987, Maine. Education: University of Maine (B.A., 1972); BostonCollege LawSchool (J.D., 1981). COURSES: Clinical Teaching.

 

ROBERT G. BURDICK, (Dir., Legal Aid Prog. & Clin. Assoc. Professor), born 1946; admitted to bar, 1972, Massachusetts. Education: Boston UniversitySchool of Law (J.D., 1972). COURSES: Advanced Federal Litigation, Interviewing, Counseling, Negotiating, Lawyering Process, Professional Responsibility, Trial Advocacy.

 

DANIELA CARUSO, (Professor), born 1964. Education: University of Bari, Italy (LL.B., 1987); Harvard Law School (LL.M. 1990); Universityof Italy (Doc. in Law, 1992). COURSES: Comparative Law, European Union Law, Contracts.

 

KRISTIN COLLINS, (Associate Professor of Law), born July 17, 1970. Education: George Washington University (B.A., 1992); Oxford University (M.LITT, 1995); Columbia University (M.A., 1996); Yale Law School (J.D., 2000). Email: collinsk@bu.edu

 

MARY CARMEL CONNAUGHTON, (Clinical Associate Professor), born 1952; admitted to bar, 1985, Massachusetts. Education: Brandeis University (B.A., 1974); Smith College (M.S.W., 1978); New York UniversitySchool of Law (J.D., 1985). COURSES: Clinical Teaching, Trial Advocacy.

 

ANNA DI ROBILANT, (Associate Professor of Law), born July 3, 1974. Education: Universityof Torino, Italy (B.A., 1999); University of Trento, Italy (Ph.D., 2004); Harvard LawSchool (LL.M., 2003; S.J.D., In‑Progress). Email: robilant@bu.edu

 

JUDITH E. DIAMOND, (Clinical Associate Professor), admitted to bar, 1974, Massachusetts. Education: University of Michigan (B.A., 1966); University of Wisconsin (M.A., 1968); Boston UniversitySchool of Law (J.D., 1974). COURSES: Clinical, Interviewing, Counseling & Negotiation, Trial Practice (Advocacy).

 

WARD FARNSWORTH, (Nancy E. Barton Scholar and Professor), born 1967. Education: Wesleyan University (B.A., 1989); University of Chicago Law School (J.D., 1994). COURSES: Civil Procedure, Torts.

 

ALAN L. FELD, (Maurice Poch Faculty Research Scholar and Professor), born 1940; admitted to bar, 1963, NewYork; 1974, Massachusetts. Education: Columbia University (A.B., 1960); Harvard LawSchool (LL.B., 1963). COURSES: Corporation Finance, Law and the Arts, Legislative Process, Tax Exempt Organizations, Tax Policy, Taxation, Federal.

 

STANLEY Z. FISHER, (Professor), born 1936; admitted to bar, 1963, District of Columbia; 1970, Massachusetts. Education: Oberlin College (B.A., 1957); Yale Law School (LL.B., 1963). COURSES: Clinical Teaching, Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure, Juvenile Law, Legal Profession.

 

JAMES FLEMING, (The Hon. Frank R. Kenison Distinguished Scholar in Law, Professor of Law), born 1954; admitted to bar, 1987, New York. Education: University of Missouri (A.B., 1977); Princeton University (A.M., 1981; Ph.D., 1988); Harvard Law School (J.D., 1985). COURSES: Constitutional Law, Constitutional Theory, Torts, Remedies. Email: jfleming@bu.edu

 

TAMAR FRANKEL, (Michaels Faculty Research Scholar and Professor), born 1925; admitted to bar, 1949, Israel; 1972, Massachusetts. Education: Harvard Law School (LL.M., 1964; S.J.D., 1972). COURSES: Corporations, Employee Profit Sharing & Benefit Plans, Partnerships, Regulation of Investment Management, Securitization of Debt.

 

LEONARD H. GLANTZ, (Professor), born 1948; admitted to bar, 1973, Massachusetts. Education: BostonUniversity (B.A., 1970; J.D., 1973). COURSES: Children and The Law, Tobacco and The Law.

 

WENDY JANE GORDON, (Professor & Paul J. Liacos Scholar in Law), born 1949; admitted to bar, 1975, Connecticut, 1976, District of Columbia. Education: Cornell University, College of Arts & Sciences (B.A., 1971); University of PennsylvaniaLaw School (J.D., 1975). COURSES: Copyright, Intellectual Property Theory, Intellectual Property, Jurisprudence, Law & Economics.

 

MICHAEL C. HARPER, (Professor & Barreca Labor Relations Scholar), born 1948; admitted to bar, 1973, Indiana; 1976, District of Columbia. Education: Harvard University (A.B., 1970); Harvard LawSchool (J.D., 1973). COURSES: Administrative Law, Employment Discrimination, Labor Law, Sports Law.

 

NEIL S. HECHT, (Professor & Director, The Institute of Jewish Law), born 1934; admitted to bar, 1959, NewYork; 1973, Massachusetts. Education: Rabbinic College (B.A., 1954); Yeshiva University (1954); Yale Law School (J.D., 1959); Columbia University (LL.M., 1964). COURSES: Agency, Evidence, Historic Preservation Law, Jewish Law, Real Property.

 

CORNELIUS HURLEY, (Director, Graduate Program Banking and Financial Law and Professor of the Practice of Banking Law), born Boston, Massachusetts, October 16, 1945; admitted to bar, 1974, Massachusetts; 1981, District of Columbia. Education: College of the Holy Cross (A.B., 1968); GeorgetownUniversity LawCenter (J.D., 1974). COURSES: Financial Services Law. Email: ckhurley@bu.edu

 

KEITH NORMAN HYLTON, (Paul J. Liacos Scholar in Law and Professor), born 1960. Education: Harvard University (A.B., 1982); Harvard Law School (J.D., 1989); Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D., 1986). COURSES: Antitrust, Labor Law, Law & Economics, Torts.

 

MARIA O'BRIEN HYLTON, (Professor), born 1960; admitted to bar, 1987, Massachusetts; 1988, District of Columbia. Education: Harvard University (A.B., 1982); Yale Law School (J.D., 1985). COURSES: Criminal Law, Employee Benefits, Insurance Law, Legislation, Problems in Labor & Employment, Public Sector Labor Law.

 

WENDY J. KAPLAN, (Clinical Professor), born 1949; admitted to bar, 1974, Massachusetts. Education: Mount Holyoke College (A.B., 1971); Boston CollegeLaw School (J.D., 1974). COURSES: Clinical Teaching, Criminal Justice, Juvenile Law.

 

SEAN J. KEALY, (Clinical Associate Professor), admitted to bar, 1995, Massachusetts. Education: Hamilton College (A.B., 1991); University of Pennsylvania, Fels Institute of Government (M.G.A., 1994); TempleUniversity School of Law (J.D., 1994). COURSES: Criminal Justice, Legislation.

 

LOIS H. KNIGHT, (Clin. Professor & Director, Clin. & Advocacy Programs), born 1948; admitted to bar, 1973, Massachusetts. Education: Tufts University (B.S., 1970); GeorgetownUniversity LawCenter (J.D., 1973). COURSES: ADR, Clinical Teaching, Legal Externship, Trial Advocacy.

 

SUSAN PARIS KONIAK, (Professor), born 1954; admitted to bar, 1979, Districtof Columbia. Education: NewYork University (B.A., 1975); YaleLaw School (J.D., 1978). COURSES: Business Ethics, Constitutional Law, Criminal Law, Legal Profession.

 

ANDREW KULL, (Paul M. Siskind Research Scholar and Professor), born 1947; admitted to bar, 1978, New York. Education: University of California (B.A., 1969); Oxford University (M.A., 1973); University of Chicago Law School (J.D., 1977). COURSES: Contracts, Restitution, Commercial Law. Email: akull@bu.edu

 

PNINA LAHAV, (Professor), born 1945. Education: Hebrew University (LL.B., 1968); YaleLaw School (LL.M., 1971; J.S.D., 1973). COURSES: Civil Liberties, Comparative Constitutional Law, First Amendment, Constitutional Law.

 

GARY STEVEN LAWSON, (Professor and Abraham & Lillian Benton Scholar), born Seattle, Washington, October 14, 1958; admitted to bar, 1983, Washington. Education: Claremont Men's College (B.A., 1980); Yale LawSchool (J.D., 1983). COURSES: Administrative Law, Property, Advanced Administrative Law, Future Interests, Securities Regulation. Email: glawson@bu.edu

 

GERALD LEONARD, (Professor), born 1960. Education: University of Michigan (Ph.D., 1992); University of MichiganLaw School (J.D., 1995). COURSES: Criminal Law, Legal History.

 

DAVID BARRY LYONS, (Professor & Law Alumni Scholar), born 1935. Education: Brooklyn College (B.A., 1960); Harvard University (M.A., 1963; Ph.D., 1963). COURSES: Constitutional Theory, Jurisprudence, Legal Process.

 

TRACEY MACLIN, (Joseph Lipsitt Faculty Research Scholar and Professor), born 1958; admitted to bar, 1984, NewJersey; 1985, New York. Education: Tufts University (B.A., 1980); Columbia University Schoolof Law (J.D., 1983). COURSES: Civil Rights, Constitutional Law, Criminal Justice, Criminal Procedure.

 

WENDY K. MARINER, (Professor), born 1946; admitted to bar, 1972, New York; 1980, Massachusetts. Education: Wellesley College (B.A., 1968); Columbia University School of Law (J.D., 1971); Harvard School of Public Health (M.P.H., 1979); New York University (L.L.M., 1979). COURSES: Managed Care and The Law.

 

STEPHEN G. MARKS, (Professor), born 1952. Education: Cal., Irvine (B.A., 1974); Cal., Berkeley (M.A., 1977; J.D., 1978; Ph.D., 1981). COURSES: Corporations, Finance, Law & Economics, Managerial Economics, Securities Regulation.

 

LINDA MCCLAIN, (Paul M. Siskind Scholar, Professor of Law), born 1958; admitted to bar, 1986, New York. Education: Oberlin College (A.B., 1980); University of Chicago (A.M., 1981); Georgetown Law Center (J.D., 1985); New YorkUniversity School of Law (LL.M., 1991). COURSES: Jurisprudence, Property, Women and the Law. Email: lmcclain@bu.edu

 

MICHAEL JAMES MEURER, (Michaels Faculty Research Scholar, Co‑director, Law & Technology and Professor), born 1958. Education: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (S.B., 1980); Universityof Minnesota (J.D., 1985; Ph.D., 1986). COURSES: Intellectual Property, Law & Economics, Patent Law, Copyright Law. Email: meurer@bu.edu

 

FRANCES H. MILLER, (N. Neal Pike Scholar and Professor), born 1938; admitted to bar, 1966, Massachusetts. Education: Mount Holyoke College (A.B., 1960); Boston University Schoolof Law (J.D., 1965). COURSES: Antitrust Issues in Health Care, Domestic Relations, Estate Planning, Future Interest & Estate Planning, Law & Medicine, Trusts & Estates.

 

WALTER W. MILLER, JR., (Professor), born 1932; admitted to bar, 1964, New York; 1979, Massachusetts. Education: HarvardUniversity (A.B., 1954); Luth. Theo. Seminary at Philadelphia (B.D., 1957); State University of New York at Buffalo School of Law (J.D., 1964); HarvardLaw School (LL.M., 1965). COURSES: Commercial Law, Commercial Paper, Conflict of Laws, Contracts, Creditors' Rights (Bankruptcy), Securities Regulation.

 

NANCY J. MOORE, (Nancy E. Barton Scholar and Professor), born 1949; admitted to bar, 1974, NewYork; Pennsylvania. Education: Smith College (A.B., 1970); Columbia University Schoolof Law (J.D., 1973). COURSES: Evidence, Law & Medical Ethics, Legal Profession, Torts.

 

EVA NILSEN, (Clinical Associate Professor), born 1944; admitted to bar, 1977, District of Columbia, Virginia; 1978, Maryland; 1980, Massachusetts. Education: Yale College (B.A., 1974); University of Virginia School of Law (J.D., 1977); Georgetown UniversityLaw Center (LL.M., 1980). COURSES: Criminal Justice, Criminal Law Clinic, Prisoners Rights Clinic, Sentencing Theory & Process.

 

KEVIN OUTTERSON, (Associate Professor of Law), admitted to bar, 1987, Illinois; 1995, Tennessee. Education: Northwestern University (B.S., 1984); Northwestern University School of Law (J.D., 1987); University of Cambridge,England (LL.M., 2002). COURSES: Health Care, Business Law and Globalization. Email: mko@bu.edu

 

WILLIAM W. PARK, (R. Gordon Butler Scholar in International Law and Professor), born 1947; admitted to bar, 1972, Massachusetts; 1980, District of Columbia. Education: Yale University (B.A., 1969); Columbia University School of Law (J.D., 1972); Universityof Cambridge (M.A., 1975). COURSES: International Banking, International Commercial Arbitration, International Transactions, Law & Religion, Taxation, Federal.

 

DANIEL G. PARTAN, (R. Gordon Butler Scholar‑in‑Law & Professor), born 1933; admitted to bar, 1959, Massachusetts. Education: Harvard Law School (LL.B., 1958; LL.M., 1961). COURSES: Admiralty, International Law, International Organizations, International Transactions.

 

MARK PETTIT, JR., (Professor), born 1946; admitted to bar, 1972, New York; 1974, Illinois. Education: Bowdoin College (A.B., 1968); University of Chicago Law School (J.D., 1971). COURSES: Commercial Law, Consumer Law, Contracts, Evidence.

 

DAVID ROSSMAN, (Professor & Director, Clinical Programs in Criminal Law), born 1947; admitted to bar, 1972, Massachusetts. Education: Dartmouth College (A.B., 1968); HarvardLaw School (J.D., 1971). COURSES: Clinical Teaching, Criminal Procedure, Law & Social Science.

 

WILLIAM E. RYCKMAN, JR., (Professor), born 1934; admitted to bar, 1958, Indiana; 1972, Massachusetts. Education: Indiana University (B.S., 1956); Indiana University School of Law, Bloomington (LL.B., 1958). COURSES: Equity, Land Use, Property.

 

ROBERT B. SEIDMAN, (Professor Emeritus), born 1920; admitted to bar, 1948, NewYork; 1951, Connecticut. Education: Harvard University (B.A., 1941); Columbia University (L.L.B., 1948). COURSES: Legislation, Legal Process.

 

DAVID J. SEIPP, (Professor), born 1955; admitted to bar, 1983, Massachusetts. Education: Harvard University (A.B., 1977); Oxford University (B.A., 1979); Cambridge University (LL.B., 1980); HarvardLaw School (J.D., 1982). COURSES: Copyright, Intellectual Property, Legal History, Property.

 

KATHARINE BAIRD SILBAUGH, (Professor), born 1963; admitted to bar, 1993, Illinois. Education: Amherst College (B.A., 1985); University of Chicago Law School (J.D., 1992). COURSES: Family Law, Torts, Women & the Law, Employment Law.

 

KENNETH W. SIMONS, (The Hon. Frank R. Kenison Distinguished Scholar in Law and Professor), born 1952; admitted to bar, 1979, Massachusetts. Education: Yale College (B.A., 1975); University of Michigan Law School (J.D., 1978). COURSES: Constitutional Law, Criminal Law, Rights & Justice, Supreme Court Decision Making, Torts.

 

THEODORE S. SIMS, (Professor), born 1944; admitted to bar, 1970, District of Columbia. Education: Columbia University (A.B., 1967); Universityof Chicago Law School (J.D., 1970); Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D., 1995). COURSES: Federal Income Taxation, Federal Tax Policy, Law & Economics, Quantitative Methods, Trusts & Estates.

 

ROBERT SLOANE, (Associate Professor of Law), born Smithtown, New York, January 6, 1974; admitted to bar, 2001, New York. Education: Columbia College (B.A., 1996); Yale Law School (J.D., 2000); Hague Academyof International Law (Diploma, 2007). Email: rdsloane@bu.edu

 

ROBERT VOLK, (Associate Professor Legal Writing & Director, 1st Year Writing Program), born 1951; admitted to bar, 1978, Massachusetts. Education: Lake Forest College (B.A., 1973); Boston University Schoolof Law (J.D., 1978). COURSES: Gay & Lesbian Rights, Legal Research & Writing.

 

DAVID IRA WALKER, (Associate Professor), born 1961; admitted to bar, 2001, Massachusetts. Education: Vanderbilt University (B.S., 1983); HarvardLaw School (J.D., 1998). COURSES: Tax, Corporations. Email: diwalker@bu.edu

 

JAY DOUGLAS WEXLER, (Associate Professor), born 1969; admitted to bar, 1999, Illinois. Education: Harvard University (B.A., 1991); University of Chicago (M.A., 1993); Stanford LawSchool (J.D., 1997). COURSES: Administrative Law, Law & Religion.

 

CHARLES WHITEHEAD, (Associate Professor of Law), born District of Columbia, December 21, 1961; admitted to bar, 1988, New York. Education: Cornell University (B.A., 1983); ColumbiaUniversity (J.D., 1986). Email: ckw@bu.edu

 

LARRY W. YACKLE, (Basil Yanakakis] Faculty Research Scholar and Professor), born 1946; admitted to bar, 1973, Kansas. Education: University of Kansas (A.B., 1968); University of Kansas School of Law (J.D., 1973); Harvard LawSchool (LL.M., 1974). COURSES: Constitutional Law, Federal Jurisdiction.