- "Personnel Files" May Be Broader Than You Think
- May 20, 2008 | Author: Linda S. Johnson
- Law Firm: McLane, Graf, Raulerson & Middleton Professional Association - Manchester Office
Many a New Hampshire employer has been faced with the request by an employee to have a copy of the employee's personnel file. Typically, a human resources person pulls the personnel file folder, makes a copy, and provides it to the employee. Simple enough? Not really. Some companies are finding out the hard way that records maintained by the company, such as by supervisors, and other records not contained within the employee's personnel file folder itself, may also be a part of the employee's personnel file that the employer is required to provide to the employee upon request.
On January 8, 2008, the United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire specifically held that notes taken by a human resources person during meetings with the employee and other company representatives should have been provided to the employee when he asked to review his personnel file. In Dolan v. SunGard Securities Finance, the court pointed out that the definition of a personnel file, as defined by the New Hampshire Department of Labor, is broad and would encompass the human resource notes. These notes were taken during meetings with the employee about complaints by the employee against his supervisors and about the employee's work performance. The court stated: "The notes pertain to an employee and would fall into an area that is similar to the listed categories. Given the breadth of the definition of personnel file, [the HR] notes are covered by the definition. Therefore, if the notes were available... when [the employee] asked to review his personnel file, they should have been provided to him."
The Dolan case decision may come as a surprise to many supervisors who keep separate notes about employees and never turn them over to become a part of the employee's official personnel file. When an employee requests to review, or have a copy of, his or her personnel file, supervisors are seldom informed. The request usually goes to the human resource person or other individual responsible for maintaining the personnel files. No effort is made to gather other documents which may legally be considered a part of the employee's personnel file even though the records are maintained in another location.
Mindful of the Dolan decision, companies should train supervisors so that they will be aware that their notes about an employee and the employee's work performance will likely be considered a part of an employee's personnel file. The company should develop a record keeping system under which supervisor notes are periodically incorporated into employee personnel files or, at a minimum, that inquiry is made of the supervisor to turn over notes and include them in the employee's personnel file at the time an employee requests to see, or have a copy of his or her file.
The New Hampshire Department of Labor Regulations defines a personnel file, in its administrative rule 802.09. It states:
"Personnel file" as used in RSA 275:56 means any and all personnel records created and maintained by an employer and pertaining to an employee including and not limited to employment applications, internal evaluations, disciplinary documentation, payroll records, injury reports and performance assessments, whether maintained in one or more locations, unless such records are exempt from disclosure under RSA 275:56, III [relating to a law enforcement investigation concerning the employee or a government security investigation] or are otherwise privileged or confidential by law. The term does not include recommendations, peer evaluations or notes not generated or created by an employer.
Typically, a personnel file will contain:
- an employment application and/or resume;
- the signed acknowledgements of the employee's receipt of the company's handbook;
- performance appraisals and other documentation of employee performance such as disciplinary warnings;
- payroll and promotion records;
- compensation and benefits information such as W-4's and beneficiary forms;
- copies of confidentiality or nondisclosure agreements;
- copies of employment agreements and non-competition agreements, if any;
- records of trainings, education or awards; AND
- supervisory or management notes about the employee such as regarding performance issues.
Care should be taken to maintain personnel file records in accordance with other legal requirements. For instance, pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act, which applies to companies with 15 or more employees, medical records should be maintained in a separate confidential file. It is also recommended that other sensitive matters such as a harassment investigation or workers' compensation records be kept in separate confidential files. I-9's and other employment verification information should also be kept in separate files. Some companies keep all I-9's in a central notebook either alphabetically by name of the employee or by date of hire. All personnel records should be maintained in a locked cabinet or locked office.
Finally, upon a request by an employee to review his or her personnel file, a company should review the file contents to ensure that all of the records need to be produced to the employee. The definition of a personnel file set forth by the Department of Labor regulation specifically exempts "recommendations, peer evaluations [and] notes not generated or created by an employer." Additionally, some records maintained in a personnel file may not have to be provided for other reasons such as privacy and confidentiality. For instance, a detailed listing of sales numbers or customers within a personnel file could be redacted or removed on the basis that it contains confidential or proprietary information about the company. Or, there may be names of co-employees, customers or other third parties whose names you may want to redact for privacy reasons. It is recommended, however, that before a company removes or redacts records from an employee's personnel file, legal counsel be consulted. It is also recommended that anytime a document is not provided to the employee, the employee is advised of its existence and the reason it is not being provided.
Both the New Hampshire Department of Labor regulations and the recent decision by New Hampshire's federal court make clear that what is considered an employee's "personnel file" may go beyond documents maintained solely in an employee's personnel file folder. Companies would be wise to educate themselves and their supervisors that an employee's personnel file includes most documents created or maintained by the employer concerning an employee's work history and performance no matter in what location such records are kept.